This year, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council successively issued a series of policies on "Several Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of the Power System" and "Opinions on Accelerating the Construction of Ecological Civilization" to encourage investment in the construction of various types of distributed power sources. At present, it has become a way to solve the problem of waste of resources through energy-saving methods, solve the problem of insufficient supply by improving energy efficiency, realize energy efficient and intensive use through the combination of Internet thinking, and improve the management level of energy through the transformation of energy system. The key path of the energy revolution.
Xie Mingliang, vice chairman and secretary-general of the China Electrical Engineering Society, said that under the new situation of energy revolution, deepening electricity reform, energy conservation and emission reduction, distributed energy as a high-efficiency energy supply system for comprehensive utilization of energy has ushered in a rare Development Opportunities. In the face of climate change, air pollution and energy security, in order to achieve the transformation of the energy system, countries around the world have chosen to vigorously develop the development route of renewable energy. However, the development of distributed energy in China, especially natural gas distributed energy, still faces challenges and opportunities.
When analyzing the problems in the development of China's natural gas distributed energy, relevant experts believe that the problems of poor economics, difficult grid connection, unsupported policies, unrestricted policies, structural and institutional constraints, and inaccurate positioning of natural gas energy have become the constraints of natural gas distributed energy development. Five major issues.
Because the relationship between price control and oil price is unreasonable, high gas prices are constraining the willingness and benign operation of natural gas distributed energy projects. On the demand side, the hot price of natural gas distributed energy is based on coal-fired heating, and the on-grid price is also compared with coal-fired power, so the environmental advantages are basically not reflected. In addition, the level of localization of key gas turbines in natural gas distributed energy is still low, and the high cost and maintenance cost of gas turbines also discourages many owners who are willing to develop distributed energy. According to industry analysts, even if distributed energy projects have been built and operated, there are still problems such as unreasonable selection and mismatch between cold and hot power loads.
In the field of distributed energy, grid connection is a common consensus among industry insiders. The country's distributed energy grid-connected policy has not been well implemented in many grass-roots power grids. The most important problem is that distributed energy directly squeezes into the grid sales market, and the old project is transformed into a thermal power triple for the grid stock market. The new natural gas distribution project has squeezed the potential market for the grid.
Distributed energy projects are difficult to connect to the grid, and they are often not effectively regulated during the implementation process. Among them, the five aspects of planning, such as planning advancement, standard matching, investment subsidy, policy tilt, and financial support formulated by the "Guiding Opinions on Developing Natural Gas Distributed Energy" have not been effectively implemented in accordance with the predetermined ideas. In addition, the reform of the energy system is still in the process of advancement, the reform measures and effects are still not in place, the energy price mechanism is still unable to achieve market-based pricing, and the environmental externalities have not yet become internalized as a hard constraint on the development of the energy industry. The energy efficiency standards have not yet Become a mandatory standard. Therefore, the constraints of institutional mechanisms are entangled in the development of distributed energy from another angle.
In the entire energy and distributed energy industry, the habitual thinking of using natural gas distributed energy as a power generation enterprise based on power generation has not fundamentally changed. The positioning is not allowed to directly lead to the development direction and mode of distributed energy. dislocation. Among the investors and owners, there is also a way to mention that there must be financial subsidies to support distributed energy projects. Once the financial subsidies meet the project construction expectations, it is easy to see that the individual project market is not adequately investigated and the planning is unreasonable.
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Zhou Dadi, executive vice chairman of the China Energy Research Association, revealed that the energy revolution should be highlighted in the 13th Five-Year Plan. According to Zhou Dadi's analysis, the energy consumption revolution should "suppress unreasonable energy consumption", "resolutely control the total energy consumption, and effectively implement the energy conservation priority policy"; the energy supply revolution must "establish a multi-supply system"; “Following the new trend of the international energy technology revolution, taking green and low carbon as the direction”; the energy system revolution should “restore the attributes of energy commodities”, “form the mechanism that determines the energy price mainly by the market”, and “transform the government’s regulation of energy” And "establish a sound energy rule of law system."
Han Xiaoping, chief information officer of China Energy Network, pointed out that in the new ecology of distributed energy development, power sales, interaction between supply and demand, and control of distributed energy all require interconnected technologies to achieve improvement. In China, with the comprehensive promotion of photovoltaic, gas and other forms of distributed energy, in the future, driven by the "Internet +" boom, distributed energy will develop by leaps and bounds.
Combined with the “13th Five-Year” energy development goals given by experts, the opportunities for distributed energy development are more obvious. In the target, highlight the energy supply and total demand targets, including total energy, variety output and consumption; highlight the energy structure optimization and adjustment targets, involving the proportion of consumption, the proportion of binding non-fossil energy, the proportion of non-fossil energy installed and power generation The proportion of specific gravity, specific to nuclear, water, wind; highlight energy conservation and efficient use of targets, involving energy intensity, energy system efficiency, power supply coal consumption, integrated line loss, etc.; in addition, it is necessary to highlight ecological environmental protection and green low carbon targets.
Among the macro factors that are conducive to the development of distributed energy, climate constraints are an important part. Experts believe that the Paris target is only the beginning of a new phase, and the emission reduction targets will be further tightened. However, the current climate change targets and policies still lag behind the needs, but are developing in a positive response. Climate change is the biggest driving force for the world's energy technology and policy adjustment. Low-carbon development has already represented the direction of world energy development. If it does not accelerate the transformation, it will quickly fall behind. Zhou Dadi said: "After 2020, some developed regions and cities must take the lead in achieving peak greenhouse gas emissions. China must seriously consider domestic targets that are significantly ahead of peak emissions in 2030."
Therefore, experts believe that the potential for energy conservation and emission reduction will increase. Even if the annual energy increase of 1.8% is based on the “13th Five-Year Plan”, if the economic growth rate is 7%, the annual energy conservation rate will reach 4.8%, 5 years. Energy intensity has dropped by about 22%. In many places, the energy intensity is reduced by about 10%, so the impact of structural changes and technological potential is huge. Therefore, the development of distributed energy can promote system optimization, improve system efficiency and overall economic effects, and modes such as cogeneration and waste heat utilization can promote efficient use of energy, enable dispersed energy resources to be fully and efficiently used, and at the same time minimize Inefficient transport of energy.
Professor Xu Wenfa, chairman of the National Regional Energy Professional Committee, also believes that regional energy will promote the energy revolution. The goal is to improve energy efficiency, build energy-efficient society, energy-efficient countries, energy-efficient cities, energy-efficient areas and energy-efficient homes. He pointed out that China's energy and environmental situation has high energy consumption and environmental pressure. The average utilization rate of energy in the world is 50.32%, while China is only 36.81%; the world's average energy consumption per million US dollars is 2.49 tons of oil equivalent, while China is as high as 7.18 tons of oil. Therefore, in response to global climate change, our government promises that by 2020, the carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP will be 40%-45% lower than that of 2005, and the energy efficiency and energy efficiency contribution rate will reach more than 85%.
Experts pointed out that the development of regional energy provides a broad prospect for the combination of energy and the Internet. Regional energy offers the possibility of supplying multiple energy sources to multiple users at the same time. It is impossible to achieve this function in one area without the support of information. When energy has jeopardized survival and development, the energy revolution has begun, and it is necessary to use Internet technology to transform energy to open the energy revolution.
In addition, the development of regional energy calls for gas turbines, chillers, waste heat recovery and other international energy equipment. Regional energy sources improve energy efficiency, realize comprehensive and integrated utilization of energy, and exhaust all kinds of energy. High efficiency and low emission are required for various utilization technologies and equipment. Therefore, it is necessary to have the world's first-class energy production. The use and conversion of equipment, and the ownership of intellectual property rights, regional energy to promote the revolution in the production and use of energy equipment.
The development of regional energy will also drive the revolution in energy conversion technology. Regional energy will use various energy sources in the region, how to convert energy into the grades and temperatures required by users, how to apply technology, high efficiency and low emissions, which is another direction of the energy revolution. The conversion of high-grade, high-temperature energy into low-grade, low-temperature energy is relatively easy to achieve, but converting a large number of low-grade, low-temperature energy into the energy we need, which requires more new technologies and equipment
Professor Xu Wenfa said that regional energy requirements improve system energy efficiency. The real effect of energy efficiency and energy reduction is the efficiency of each energy system. It is a system consisting of multiple devices, for example, heating system, cooling system, power supply system, etc. The energy efficiency of each energy system within the system is improved, and the energy efficiency of the region can be improved.
Some experts have suggested that the distributed power supply mainly adopts the operation mode of “spontaneous use, surplus Internet access, and power grid adjustment”. Under the premise of ensuring safety, the company actively develops micro-grid and smart grid technologies that integrate advanced energy storage technology and information technology to improve System capacity and energy efficiency. In addition, it is necessary to fully liberalize the user-side distributed power supply market, actively carry out various pilots and demonstrations of distributed power projects, and open up user-side distributed power supply construction to support enterprises, institutions, communities and families to invest in local conditions according to their respective conditions. Various types of distributed power sources, such as solar energy, wind energy, biomass power generation, and gas “heat and cold cooling” cogeneration, are permitted to access distribution networks and terminal power systems of various voltage levels. At the same time, professional energy service companies should be encouraged to cooperate with users or to build distributed power sources in a “contract energy management” model.